From: Kevin Cernekee on
When a secondary CPU is being brought up, it is not uncommon for
printk() to be invoked when cpu_online(smp_processor_id()) == 0. The
case that I witnessed personally was on MIPS:

If (can_use_console() == 0), printk() will spool its output to log_buf
and it will be visible in "dmesg", but that output will NOT be echoed to
the console until somebody calls release_console_sem() from a CPU that
is online. Therefore, the boot time messages from the new CPU can get
stuck in "limbo" for a long time, and might suddenly appear on the
screen when a completely unrelated event (e.g. "eth0: link is down")

This patch modifies the console code so that any pending messages are
automatically flushed out to the console whenever a CPU hotplug
operation completes successfully or aborts.

The issue was seen on 2.6.34.

Signed-off-by: Kevin Cernekee <cernekee(a)>
kernel/printk.c | 33 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
1 files changed, 33 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)

diff --git a/kernel/printk.c b/kernel/printk.c
index 444b770..9c04719 100644
--- a/kernel/printk.c
+++ b/kernel/printk.c
@@ -37,6 +37,8 @@
#include <linux/ratelimit.h>
#include <linux/kmsg_dump.h>
#include <linux/syslog.h>
+#include <linux/cpu.h>
+#include <linux/notifier.h>

#include <asm/uaccess.h>

@@ -985,6 +987,37 @@ void resume_console(void)

+ * console_cpu_notify - print deferred console messages after CPU hotplug
+ *
+ * If printk() is called from a CPU that is not online yet, the messages
+ * will be spooled but will not show up on the console. This function is
+ * called when a new CPU comes online and ensures that any such output
+ * gets printed.
+ */
+static int __cpuinit console_cpu_notify(struct notifier_block *self,
+ unsigned long action, void *hcpu)
+ switch (action) {
+ case CPU_ONLINE:
+ if (try_acquire_console_sem() == 0)
+ release_console_sem();
+ }
+ return NOTIFY_OK;
+static struct notifier_block __cpuinitdata console_nb = {
+ .notifier_call = console_cpu_notify,
+static int __init console_notifier_init(void)
+ register_cpu_notifier(&console_nb);
+ return 0;
* acquire_console_sem - lock the console system for exclusive use.
* Acquires a semaphore which guarantees that the caller has

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